Heterozygous NR5A1 changes are emerging as a frequent contributor in 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis.  In affected individuals, sexual development does not match their chromosomal makeup. Males, despite having 46, XY karyotype , develop female external genitalia (uterus and fallopian tubes) along with gonadal defects rendering them nonfunctional.  NR5A1 mutations have also been linked to partial gonadal dysgenesis, whereby affected individuals have ambiguous genitalia, urogenital sinus, absent or rudimentary Müllerian structures, and other abnormalities. 
Andrology's July 2016 issue is devoted to the timely topic of endocrine disruption, which is suspected to be one of the factors responsible for the reported rise in the incidence of male reproductive disorders. The content of this special issue highlights some of the pertinent topics in the field that are of relevance for andrologists and researchers interested in reproductive biology and endocrinology, including female reproduction and neuroendocrinology.
Research in 2006  indicated that centrosomes from surf clam eggs contain RNA sequences . The sequences identified were found in "few to no" other places in the cell, and do not appear in existing genome databases. One identified RNA sequence contains a putative RNA polymerase , leading to the hypothesis of an RNA based genome within the centrosome. However, subsequent research has shown that centrosome do not contain their own DNA-based genomes. While it was confirmed that RNA molecules associate with centrosomes, the sequences have still been found within the nucleus. Furthermore, centrosomes can form de novo after having been removed (. by laser irradiation) from normal cells.