Neuroactive Steroids and Brain Functions.- Neurosteroid: Molecular Mechanisms of Action on the GABAA Receptor.- Steroid Metabolism in Glial Cells.- Involvement of Neuroactive Steroids in Hippocampal Disorders: Lessons from Animal Models.- Estrogen Modulation of Visceral Nociception.- Neuroactive Steroids: Effects on Cognitive Functions.- Estrogen, Cholinergic System and Cognition.- Local Production of Estrogen and its Rapid Modulatory Action on Synaptic Plasticity.- Effects of Estradiol and DHEA on Morphological Synaptic Plasticity.- Pregnane Steroids and Short-Term Neural Plasticity.- Steroidogenesis and Neuroplasticity in the Songbird Brain.- Dehydroepiandrosterone, as Endogenous Inhibitor of Neuronal Cell Apoptosis: Potential Therapeutic Implications in Neurodegenerative Diseases.- DHEA and DHEA-S, and their Functions in the Brain and Adrenal Medulla.- Neurosteroids in the Aging Brain.- Neuroactive Steroids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.- Dehydroepiandrosterone and Pregnenolone Alterations in Schizophrenia.- Neurosteroids in Cortical Development and the Etiology of Schizophrenia.- Neurosteroid Perturbation and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia: From the Mechanisms to the Treatment.- Dehydroepiandrosterone Administration in Treating Medical and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.- Allopregnanolone and Pregnenolone Alterations Following Pharmacological Agents in Rodents and Clinic Populations.- Reconsidering Classifi cations of Depression Syndromes: Lessons from Neuroactive Steroids and Evolutionary Sciences.- Neuroactive Steroids in Brain and Relevance to Mood.- The Role of Neuroactive Steroids in Anxiety Disorders.- The Role of Midbrain 3?,5?-THP in Mediating Exploration, Anxiety, Social, and Reproductive Behavior.- The Role of Progesterone and its Metabolites in Premenstrual Disorders of Affect.- Neurosteroid Derangement in Women Diagnosed with Eating Disorders.- Neurosteroids in Alcohol and Substance Use.- The Role of Neurosteroids in Development of Pediatric Psychopathology.
Z-drugs emerged in the last years of the 1980s and early 1990s, with zopiclone (Imovane) approved by the British National Health Service as early as 1989, quickly followed by Sanofi with zolpidem (Ambien). By 1999, King Pharmaceuticals had finalized approval with the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market zaleplon (Sonata, Starnoc) across the US. In 2005, the FDA approved eszopiclone (Lunesta) the ( S )- enantiomer of zopiclone . That same year, 2005, the FDA finalized approval for Ambien CR, or extended-release zolpidem. Most recently, in 2012 the FDA approved Intermezzo, which still utilizes zolpidem as its active ingredient, but is marketed for middle-of-the-night insomnia , available in doses only half of the strength of immediate-release Ambien to avoid residual next-day sedation .
First, the normality of data was assessed using a Shapiro-Wilk test. Then, levels of hormones were compared between cases and controls using a matched paired -test or Wilcoxon test as appropriate. We also ran exploratory correlation analyses (Pearson’s or Spearman’s rho, as appropriate) to examine the associations between hormonal levels and other factors, including the severity of symptoms. If significant associations were detected, we subsequently adjusted for the severity of other symptom dimensions in multiple linear regression models to account for their potential confounding effect [ 7 ]. SPSS was used for all analyses.