Born in 1930, Kohl had been enrolled into the Hitler Youth, and he no doubt sincerely hoped that his country’s future would not be an extension of its past. The first German chancellor to address the Knesset in Jerusalem, he took Israeli interests to heart, and invited emigrating Soviet Jews to rebuild the community in Germany. He handpicked Angela Merkel to succeed him as chancellor. When prosecutors discovered that he had been illegally taking large sums of money from anonymous donors for his Christian Democrat party, this cozy relationship became Kaputt, as Kohl expressed it. He was obliged to repay $100,000, and the scandal of it darkened the end of his life.
Newer scholarship on the arts under socialism seeks to re-appropriate the field by bringing contemporary interests and research questions to bear upon it. Such work is yielding more nuanced and in-depth insights into how the arts functioned in socialist society, which highlight commonalities as well as differences between socialist and capitalist modernity. Because the different disciplines we engage exhibit significant interpretive differences—and the experience of East German artists working in different media was also quite varied—the Institute expects to break new ground by challenging conventional assumptions about periodization and socialist ideology and cultural policies.
But Götz had no regrets and went on to win the UEFA Cup in 1988 with his new West German team, Bayer Leverkusen. But life in the West did not mean he, or others, had escaped the clutches of the Stasi (indeed, he later found out that the Stasi had, within their files, photographs of his new home in West Germany). Cases of defectors drugged and smuggled back East, although rare, were not unheard of. A friend of Götz in West Germany, a fellow East German, was killed in a car accident. Götz, suspecting it was no accident, feared for his own life.