In hemodialysis circuits, pulling large volumes of water across the semi-permeable membrane creates a convective current that “drags” additional solutes. While diffusion is effective at removing most small molecules, convection enhances the removal of small and mid-sized molecules. Thus, convection can be added to hemodialysis therapy to enhance solute removal. To prevent hypovolemia, any water removed during hemofiltration must be returned to the blood before it reaches the patient. This is called “replacement” fluid. Hemofiltration rates of 1 L/hr mean that one liter of fluid is removed from the patient's blood and eliminated in the drainage fluid AND 1 L of replacement fluid is returned to the circuit before it reaches the patient. We set hemofiltration rates by adjusting replacement rates. Any fluid removed during hemofiltration is given back to maintain a net neutral fluid balance. Replacement fluid must be sterile intravenous fluids with concentrations of electrolytes similar to plasma.