The prevalence of performance-enhancing drugs in sports has increased in the 43 years since Mirkin, a physician and sports medicine expert, handed out his survey. The desire to win is, naturally, ever present while, at the same time, new research and technologies have expanded the number of options for cheating your way onto the podium. For example, today's performance-enhancing drugs come in many forms other than a pill ("the cream and the clear," a testosterone-based ointment described by accused athletes in court testimony, comes to mind), but the results they produce are still highly sought after. Professional cycling has been repeatedly rocked by revelations and allegations of drug use. Every two years as the Olympic Games begin, we hear about athletes using or at least being tested for performance-enhancing drugs. Major League Baseball is still trying to repair its image from the steroid era. And the list goes on.
A common delivery system for this is a styptic or hemostatic pencil (not to be confused with a caustic pencil ). This is a short stick of medication . Anhydrous aluminium sulfate is the main ingredient and acts as a vasoconstrictor in order to disable blood flow. The stick is applied directly to the bleeding site. The high ionic strength promotes flocculation of the blood, and the astringent chemical causes local vasoconstriction. Before safety razors were invented, it was a standard part of a shaving kit and was used to seal shaving cuts.  Some people continue to use styptic pencils for minor skin wounds from safety or electric razors. 
Whatever appeal these ideas may have, they also raise fundamental questions about what it means to be human. From the earliest days of civilization, people have sought to better their condition through the use of tools, medications, surgeries and other therapies. But as new scientific and technological breakthroughs arise, so do questions about whether such developments move beyond limits set by God, nature or reason. Thus, this research is aimed in part at understanding where, if at all, the public might “draw the line” on human enhancements and the possibilities they could bring to society.